ALOPECIA IN CHILDREN

Categories of alopecia in children

Localised

CONGENITAL

  • Sebaceous nevus: This is a nevus of the sebaceous glands, on which no hair grows.
  • Congenital aplasia of the skin: It is a localised absence of skin that occurs as ulcer or scar. No hair grows in that area.

ACQUIRED

  1. Alopecia Areata : This is an autoimmune disease
  2. Trichotillomania: The patients cause it on their own
  3. Tinea capitis is a fungal infection of the scalp

Diffuse

ACQUIRED

  • Iron deficiency
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Malnutrition (proteins – calories)
  • Rapid Weight Loss
  • Medications

Causes of cicatricial alopecia in children

  1. Developmental disorder and hereditary conditions (skin aplasia, epidermal nevi, porokeratosis of Mibelli, ichthyosis, Darier disease, etc.
  2. Defects due to natural causes: mechanical traumas, burns, x-ray dermatitis.
  3. Microbial infections: tinea/ringworm infections, bacterial infections (lupus vulgaris, leprosy, tertiary syphilis, furuncle, carbuncle, folliculitis, acne necrotising), leishmaniasis, viral infections (herpes zoster, chickenpox, smallpox).
  4. Neoplasias: basal cell carcinoma, cicatricial (scarring) basal cell carcinoma, metastatic carcinomas.
  5. Various other dermatoses/skin diseases of unknown aetiology: lichen planus, lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, lipoid necrobiosis, sarcoidosis, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, and follicular mucinosis.

 

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